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  • Silicon carbide mirror subjected to thermal-vacuum testing


    Credit: ESA, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO A strong but lightweight mirror for space, made from silicon carbide ceramic, is being subjected to the temperature levels and vacuum encountered in orbit. The 95 cm-diameter mirror consists of three separate petals fused together ahead of grinding and polishing. The aim of the test, led for ESA by AMOS in Belgium, was to check if the combination of joints would induce optical distortion when the mirror's temperature was brought close to –150°C. A compound of silicon and carbon, SiC was first synthesised in 1893 in an attempt to make artificial diamonds. The result was not so far off: today, SiC is one of the hardest-known materials, used to make cutting tools, high-performance brakes and even bulletproof vests. Crystalline in nature, it is also used for jewellery. Small amounts of SiC have been unearthed inside meteorites – it is relatively common in deep space. Its strong, lightweight nature made it a natural for human-made space projects too. ESA produced the largest SiC mirror ever to fly in space for the Herschel telescope, launched in 2009. At 3.5 m in diameter, this reflector had twice the observing area of the Hubble Space Telescope while having one third of its mass. Once mastered by ESA, SiC technology has since been used to manufacture a wide variety of space mirrors and optical supports, for missions such as Gaia, Sentinel-2 and the James Webb Space Telescope. Source:phys.org For more information, please visit our website: www.semiconductorwafers.net, send us email at angel.ye@powerwaywafer.com or powerwaymaterial@gmail.com.

  • PAM-XIAMEN Offers GaAs LED wafer


    Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co.,Ltd., a leading supplier of GaAs epi wafer and other related products and services announced the new availability of size 2”&4”  is on mass production in 2010. This new product represents a natural addition to PAM-XIAMEN's product line. Dr. Shaka, said, "We are pleased to offer GaAs LED epi wafer to our customers including many who are developing better and more reliable for Red Led. It includes algainp led structure with multi quantum well,including DBR layer for LED chip industry, wavelength range from 620nm to 780nm by MOCVD. Therein, AlGaInP is used in manufacture of light-emitting diodes of high-brightness red, orange, green, and yellow color, to form the heterostructure emitting light. It is also used to make diode lasers.The availability improve boule growth and wafering processes." and "Our customers can now benefit from the increased device yield expected when developing advanced transistors on a square substrate. Our led epitaxy are natural by products of our ongoing efforts,  currently we are devoted to continuously develop more reliable products." PAM-XIAMEN's improved algainp led structure product line has benefited from strong tech. support from Native University and Laboratory Center. Now we show you specification as follows: p-GaP p-AlGaInP MQW-AlGaInP n-AlGaInP DBR n-ALGaAs/AlAs Buffer GaAs substrate About Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co., Ltd Found in 1990, Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co., Ltd (PAM-XIAMEN) is a leading manufacturer of compound semiconductor material in China. PAM-XIAMEN develops advanced crystal growth and epitaxy technologies, manufacturing processes, engineered substrates and semiconductor devices. PAM-XIAMEN's technologies enable higher performance and lower cost manufacturing of semiconductor wafer. About GaAs Gallium arsenide is used in the manufacture of devices such as microwave frequency integrated circuits, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, infrared light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, solar cells and optical windows. GaAs is often used as a substrate material for the epitaxial growth of other III-V semiconductors including indium gallium arsenide, aluminum gallium arsenide and others. Some electronic properties of gallium arsenide are superior to those of silicon. It has a higher saturated electron velocity and higher electron mobility, allowing gallium arsenide transistors to function at frequencies in excess of 250 GHz. GaAs devices are relatively insensitive to overheating, owing to their wider energy bandgap, and they also tend to create less noise (disturbance in an electrical signal) in electronic circuits than silicon devices, especially at high frequencies. This is a result of higher carrier mobilities and lower resistive device parasitics. These superior properties are compelling reasons to use GaAs circuitry in mobile phones, satellite communications, microwave point-to-point links and higher frequency radar systems. It is...

  • Modulated doping improves GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers


    Schematic of a 10-pair Si-doped AlInN/GaN DBR structure for vertical current injection and (b) a Si-doping profile in a pair of AlInN/GaN layers. Credit: Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP) Researchers at Meijo University and Nagoya University in Japan demonstrated a design of GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) that provides good electrical conductivity and is readily grown. The findings are reported in Applied Physics Express. This research is featured in the November 2016 issue of the online JSAP Bulletin. "GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are expected to be adopted in various applications, such as retinal scanning displays, adaptive headlights, and high-speed visible-light communication systems," explain Tetsuya Takeuchi and colleagues at Meijo University and Nagoya University in Japan in their latest report. However, so far, the structures designed for commercialising these devices have poor conducting properties, and existing approaches to improve the conductivity introduce fabrication complexities while performance is inhibited. A report by Takeuchi and colleagues has now demonstrated a design that provides good conduction and is readily grown. VCSELs generally use structures called distributed Bragg reflectors to provide the necessary reflectivity for an effective cavity that allows the device to lase. These reflectors are alternating layers of materials with different refractive indices, which result in a very high reflectivity. Intracavity contacts can help improve the poor conductivity of GaN VCSELs, but these increase the cavity size leading to poor optical confinement, complex fabrication processes, high threshold current densities and a low output-versus-input power efficiency (i.e. the slope efficiency). The low conductivity in DBR structures is the result of polarization charges between the layers of different materials – AlInN and GaN. To overcome the effects of polarization charges, Takeuchi and colleagues used silicon-doped nitrides and introduced "modulation doping" into the layers of the structure. The increased silicon dopant concentrations at the interfaces help to neutralize the polarization effects. Meijo and Nagoya University researchers have also devised a method to expedite the AlInN growth rate to over 0.5 μm/h. The result is a 1.5λ-cavity GaN-based VCSEL with an n-type conducting AlInN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector that has a peak reflectivity of over 99.9% , threshold current of 2.6 mA, corresponding to a threshold current density of 5.2 kA/cm2, and an operating voltage was 4.7V. Source:phys.org For more information, please visit our website: www.semiconductorwafers.net, send us email at angel.ye@powerwaywafer.com or powerwaymaterial@gmail.com

  • PAM-XIAMEN Offers High Purity Semi-Insulating SiC substrate


    Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co.,Ltd., a leading supplier of High Purity Semi-Insulating SiC substrate and other related products and services announced the new availability of size 2”&3”&4”  is on mass production in 2017. This new product represents a natural addition to PAM-XIAMEN's product line. Dr. Shaka, said, "We are pleased to offer High Purity Semi-Insulating SiC substrate to our customers. 4H Semi-Insulating Silicon Carbide (SiC) substrates that are available in on-axis orientation. The unique HTCVD crystal growth technology is the key enabler to purer products combining high and uniform resistivity with a very low defect density. The availability improve boule growth and wafering processes." and "Our customers can now benefit from the increased device yield expected when developing advanced transistors on a square substrate. Our High Purity Semi-Insulating SiC substrate are natural by products of our ongoing efforts, currently we are devoted to continuously develop more reliable products." We offer High-purity, semi-insulating (HPSI) 4H-SiC crystals with diameters up to 100 mm, which is grown by the seeded sublimation technology without the intentional deep-level element, such as vanadium dopants. And wafers cut from these crystals exhibit homogeneous activation energies near mid gap and thermally stable semi-insulating (SI) behavior (>10^7 ohm-cm) throughout device processing. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy, deep-level transient spectroscopy, optical admittance spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance data suggest that the SI behavior originates from several deep levels associated with intrinsic point defects. Micropipe densities in HPSI substrates have been demonstrated to be as low as average typical value 0.8 cm−2 in three inch diameter substrates with TTV=1.7um (median value),WARP=7.7um(median value),and BOW=-4.5um(median value). PAM-XIAMEN's improved High Purity Semi-Insulating SiC substrate product line has benefited from strong tech, support from Native University and Laboratory Center. Now we show you specification as follows: HPSI, 4H SEMI-INSULATING SIC, 2″WAFER SPECIFICATION SUBSTRATE PROPERTY S4H-51-SI-PWAM-250 S4H-51-SI-PWAM-330 S4H-51-SI-PWAM-430 Description A/B Production Grade  C/D Research Grade  D Dummy Grade  4H SEMI Substrate Polytype 4H Diameter (50.8 ± 0.38) mm Thickness (250 ± 25) μm Resistivity (RT) >1E5 Ω·cm Surface Roughness < 0.5 nm (Si-face CMP Epi-ready); <1 nm (C- face Optical polish) FWHM A<30 arcsec B/C/D <50 arcsec Micropipe Density A+≤1cm-2  A≤10cm-2   B≤30cm-2  C≤50cm-2  D≤100cm-2 Surface Orientation On axis± 0.5° Off axis                         3.5° toward± 0.5° Primary flat orientation Parallel {1-100} ± 5° Primary flat length 16.00 ± 1.70 mm Secondary flat orie...

  • 3.0 MeV proton-irradiation induced non-radiative recombination center in the GaAs middle cell and the GaInP top cell of triple-junction solar cells


    3.0 MeV proton-irradiation effects on the GaAs middle cell and the GaInP top cell of n+-p GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction (3J) solar cells have been analyzed using temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) technique. The E5 (Ec - 0.96 eV) electron trap in the GaAs middle cell, the H2 (Ev + 0.55 eV) hole trap in the GaInP top cell are identified as the proton irradiation-induced non-radiative recombination centers, respectively, causing the performance degradation of the triple-junction solar cells. The GaAs middle cell is less resistant to proton irradiation than the GaInP top cell. Source:IOPscience For more information, please visit our website: www.semiconductorwafers.net, send us email at angel.ye@powerwaywafer.com or powerwaymaterial@gmail.com

  • Crystal wafer


    Crystal wafer(SiC wafer,gan wafer,gaas wafer,ge wafer,CZT wafer,AlN wafer,Si wafer) A wafer, also called a slice or substrate, is a thin slice of semiconductor material, such as a crystalline silicon, used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells. The wafer serves as the substrate for microelectronic devices built in and over the wafer and undergoes many microfabrication process steps such as doping or ion implantation, etching, deposition of various materials, and photolithographic patterning. Finally the individual microcircuits are separated (dicing) and packaged. XiamenPowerway Advanced Material Co.,Ltd offers wide range crystal wafer as follows: 1)SiC crystal wafer:2”,3”,4” Orientation :0°/4°±0.5° Single Crystal 4H/6H Thickness: (250 ± 25) μm, (330 ± 25) μm,(430 ± 25) μm Type:N/SI Dopant:Nitrogen/V Resistivity (RT): 0.02 ~ 0.1 Ω·cm/>1E5 Ω·cm FWHM: A<30 arcsec B/C/D <50 arcsec Packaging:Single wafer box or multi wafer box 2)GaN crystal wafer:1.5",2”,3",4"6" Free-standing (gallium nitride) GaN Substrate Orientation:C-axis(0001)+/-0.5° Thickness:350um Resistivity(300K): <0.5Ω·cm >10^6Ω·cm Dislocation Density:<5x10^6cm-2 TTV:<=15um BOW:<=20um Surface Finish:Front Surface:Ra<0.2nm.Epi-ready polished 3)Germanium crystal wafer: 2”,3”,4” Orientation :+/- 0.5 ° Type / Dopant : N / Sb; P / Ga Diameter : 100 mm Thickness : 525 +/- 25 um Resistivity : 0.1 ~ 40  ohm-cm Primary flat location :+/-0.5 degree Primary flat length : 32.5 +/-2.5 mm Front surface : Polished Back surface : Etched Edge surface finishing : cylindrical ground Surface roughness  ( Ra ) : <=5A EPD : <= 5000 cm-2 Epi ready : yes Package : Single wafer container 4)GaAs crystal wafer: 2”,3”,4”,6” Thickness:220~500m Conduction Type:SC/n-type Growth Method:VGF Dopant:Silicon/Zn Orientation:(100)20/60/150 off (110) Resistivity at RT:(1.5~9)E-3 Ohm.cm Packaging:Single wafer container or cassette 2" LT-GaAs Thickness:1-2um or 2-3um Resistivity(300K):>108 Ohm-cm Polishing:Single side polished (GaAs)Gallium Arsenide Wafers for LED/LD/Microelectronics/ Applications 5)CZT crystal wafer(15*15±0.05mm,25*25±0.05mm,30*30±0.05mm) Orientation (111)B,(211)B Thickness: Doped:Undoped Resistivity:≥1MΩ.cm EPD≤1x105/cm3 Double side polished 6)AlN crystal wafer:2” 7)Silicon crystal wafer: 2”,3”,4”,6”,8” 8)LiNbO3 crystal wafer: 2”,3”,4”,6” 9)LiTaO3 crystal wafer: 2”,3”,4”,6” 10)InAs,InP crystal wafer: 2”,3”,4” 11)Othercrystal wafer with small size:ZnO, MgO, YSZ, STO, LSAT, TiO2, LAO, Al2O3,SrTiO3, LaAlO3 Standard wafer sizes Silicon wafers are available in a variety of diameters from 25.4 mm (1 inch) to 300 mm (11.8 inches). Semiconductor fabrication plants (also known as fabs) are defined by the diameter of wafers that they are tooled to produce. The diameter has gradually increased to improve throughput and reduce cost with the current state-of-the-art fab using 300 mm, with a proposa...

  • Detail Application of Silicon Carbide


    Detail Application of Silicon Carbide Because of SiC physical and electronic properties,silicon carbide based device are well suitable for short wavelength optoelectronic, high temperature, radiation resistant, and high-power/high-frequency electronic devices,compared with Si and GaAs based device. Many researchers know the general SiC application:III-V Nitride Deposition;Optoelectronic Devices;High Power Devices;High Temperature Devices;High Frequency Power Devices.But few people knows detail applications, here we list some detail application and make some explanations: 1.SiC substrate for X-ray monochromators: such as using SiC's large d-spacing of about 15 A 2.SiC substrate for high voltage devices 3.SiC substrate for diamond film growth by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition 4.For silicon carbide p-n diode 5.SiC substrate for optical window: such as for very short (< 100 fs) and intense (> 100 GW/cm2) laser pulses with a wavelength of 1300 nm. It should have a low absorption coefficient and a low two photon absorption coefficient for 1300 nm 6.SiC substrate for heat spreader: For example,the Silicon carbide crystal will be capillary bonded on a flat gain chip surface of VECSEL (Laser) to remove the generated pump heat. Therefore, the following properties are important: 1)Semi-insulating type required to prevent free carrier absorption of the laser light 2) Double side polished are preferred 3)Surface roughness:  < 2nm, so that the surface is enough flat for bonding 7.SiC substrate for THz system application: Normally it require THz transparency 8.SiC substrate for epitaxial graphene on SiC:Graphene epitaxy on off axis substrate and on axis are both available, surface side on C-face or Si face are both available. 9.SiC substrate for process development loke ginding, dicing and etc 10.SiC substrate for fast photo-electric switch 11.SiC substrate for heat sink: thermal conductivity and thermal expansion are concerned. 12.SiC substrate for laser: optical, surface and stranparence  are concerned. 13.SiC substrate for III-V epitaxy, normally off axis substrate are required. Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co.,Limited is an expert in SiC substrate, can give researchers suggestions in different application. Source:PAM-XIAMEN If you need more information about Detail Application of Silicon Carbide, please visit http://www.semiconductorwafers.net or send us email at luna@powerwaywafer.com and powerwaymaterial@gmail.com

  • SiC Crystal


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