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1.Definition of Silicon Carbide Material
  • 1-1.lattice parameter

    2018-01-08

    The lattice constant, or lattice parameter, refers to the constant distance between unit cells in a crystal lattice. Lattices in three dimensions generally have three lattice constants, referred to as a, b, and c. However, in the special case of cubic crystal structures, all of the constants are equal and we only refer to a. Similarly, in hexagonal crystal structures, the a andb constants are equal, and we only refer to the a and c constants. A group of lattice constants could be referred to as lattice parameters. However, the full set of lattice parameters consist of the three lattice constants and the three angles between them. For example the lattice constant for a common carbon diamond is a = 3.57Å at 300 K. The structure is equilateral although its actual shape can not be determined from only the lattice constant. Furthermore, in real applications, typically the average lattice constant is given. As lattice constants have the dimension of length, their SI unit is the meter. Lattice constants are typically on the order of several angstroms (i.e. tenths of a nanometre). Lattice constants can be determined using techniques such as X-ray diffraction or with an atomic force microscope. In epitaxial growth, the lattice constant is a measure of the structural compatibility between different materials. Lattice constant matching is important for the growth of thin layers of materials on other materials; when the constants differ, strains are introduced into the layer, which prevents epitaxial growth of thicker layers without defects.

  • 1-2.Stacking Sequence

    2018-01-08

    If we are going to make a laminated structure, we must know the thickness of each ply and the angle of each ply traditionally in degrees defined from the top layer down.

  • 1-3.Mohs Hardness

    2018-01-08

    Rough measure of the resistance of a smooth surface to scratching or abrasion, expressed in terms of a scale devised(1812)by the German mineralogist Friedrich Mohs. The Mohs hardness of a mineral is determined by observing whether its surface is scratched by a substance of known or defined hardness.

  • 1-4.Density

    2018-01-08

    The mass density or density of a material is its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ρ (the lower case Greek letter rho). Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume:

  • 1-5.Thermal Expansion Coefficient

    2018-01-08

    Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature. When a substance is heated, its particles begin moving more and thus usually maintain a greater average separation. Materials which contract with increasing temperature are rare; this effect is limited in size, and only occurs within limited temperature ranges (see examples below). The degree of expansion divided by the change in temperature is called the material's coefficient of thermal expansion and generally varies with temperature. The coefficient of thermal expansion describes how the size of an object changes with a change in temperature. Specifically, it measures the fractional change in size per degree change in temperature at a constant pressure. Several types of coefficients have been developed: volumetric, area, and linear. Which is used depends on the particular application and which dimensions are considered important. For solids, one might only be concerned with the change along a length, or over some area. The volumetric thermal expansion coefficient is the most basic thermal expansion coefficient. In general, substances expand or contract when their temperature changes, with expansion or contraction occurring in all directions. Substances that expand at the same rate in every direction are called isotropic. For isotropic materials, the area and linear coefficients may be calculated from the volumetric coefficient. Mathematical definitions of these coefficients are defined below for solids, liquids, and gasses. General volumetric thermal expansion coefficient In the general case of a gas, liquid, or solid, the volumetric coefficient of thermal expansion is given by The subscript p indicates that the pressure is held constant during the expansion, and the subscript "V" stresses that it is the volumetric (not linear) expansion that enters this general definition. In the case of a gas, the fact that the pressure is held constant is important, because the volume of a gas will vary appreciably with pressure as well as temperature. For a gas of low density this can be seen from the ideal gas law.

  • 1-6.Refraction Index

    2018-01-08

    In optics the refractive index (or index of refraction) n of a substance (optical medium) is a number that describes how light, or any other radiation, propagates through that medium. Refractive index of materials varies with the wavelength. This is called dispersion; it causes the splitting of white light in prisms and rainbows, and chromatic aberration in lenses. Inopaque media, the refractive index is a complex number: while the real part describes refraction, the imaginary part accounts for absorption. The concept of refractive index is widely used within the full electromagnetic spectrum, from x-rays to radio waves. It can also be used with wave phenomena other than light (e.g.,sound). In this case the speed of sound is used instead of that of light and a reference medium other than vacuum must be chosen. For infrared light refractive indices can be considerably higher. Germanium is transparent in a wavelength of 589 nanometers and has a refractive index of about 4, making it an important material for infrared optics. SiC refraction index: 2.55 (infrared; all polytypes)

  • 1-7.Band-gap

    2018-01-08

    In solid state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist. In graphs of the electronic band structure of solids, the band gap generally refers to the energy difference (in electron volts) between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band in insulatorsand semiconductors.  This is equivalent to the energy required to free an outer shell electron from its orbit about the nucleus to become a mobile charge carrier, able to move freely within the solid material. So the band gap is a major factor determining the electrical conductivity of a solid. Substances with large band gaps are generally insulators, those with smaller band gaps are semiconductors, while conductors either have very small band gaps or none, because the valence and conduction bands overlap.SiC band-gap: 2.36eV(3C),3.23eV(4H) and 3.05eV(6H).

  • 1-8.Electrical Breakdown

    2018-01-08

    The term electrical breakdown or electric breakdown has several similar but distinctly different meanings. For example, the term can apply to the failure of an electric circuit. Alternatively, it may refer to a rapid reduction in the resistance of an electrical insulator that can lead to aspark jumping around or through the insulator. This may be a momentary event (as in an electrostatic discharge), or may lead to a continuousarc discharge if protective devices fail to interrupt the current in a high power circuit. There is currently much interest in its use as a semiconductor material in electronics, where its high thermal conductivity, high electric field breakdown strength and high maximum current density make it more promising than silicon for high-powered devices

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