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Ge(Germanium) Single Crystals and Wafers

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Ge(Germanium) Single Crystals and Wafers

Ge(Germanium) Single Crystals and Wafers

PAM offers semiconductor materials,single crystal (Ge)Germanium Wafer grown by VGF / LEC

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Single crystal (Ge)Germanium Wafer


PAM offers semiconductor materials,Ge(Germanium) Single Crystals and Wafers grown by VGF / LEC

General Properties of Germanium Wafer


General  Properties Structure

Cubic, a = 5.6754 Å 

Density: 5.765 g/cm3

Melting   Point: 937.4 oC 

Thermal Conductivity: 640

Crystal Growth Technology

Czochralski 

Doping  available

Undoped

Sb Doping

Doping In or Ga 

Conductive Type

/   

P

Resistivity, ohm.cm

>35  

< 0.05  

0.05 - 0.1 

EPD 

< 5x103/cm 

< 5x103/cm2  

< 5x103/cm2  

< 5x102/cm 

< 5x102/cm2 

< 5x102/cm2  

 

Grades and Application of Germanium wafer

Electronic Grade

Used for diodes and transistors,

Infrared or opitical Grade

Used for IR optical window or disks,opitical components

Cell Grade

Used for substrates of solar cell 


Standard Specs of  Germanium Crystal and wafer

Crystal Orientation

<111>,<100> and <110> ± 0.5o or custom orientation

Crystal boule as grown

1" ~ 6" diameter  x  200 mm Length

Standard blank as cut

1"x 0.5mm

2"x0.6mm

4"x0.7mm

5"&6"x0.8mm 

Standard Polished wafer(One/two sides polished)

1"x 0.30 mm

2"x0.5mm

4"x0.5mm

 5"&6"x0.6mm

Special size and orientation are available upon requested  Wafers


Specification of Germanium Wafer

Item

Specifications

Remarks

Growth Method

VGF

Conduction Type

n-type, p type, undoped

 

Dopant

Gallium or Antimony

 

Wafer Diamter

2, 3,4 & 6

 inch

Crystal Orientation

(100),(111),(110)

 

Thickness

200~550

um

OF

EJ or US

Carrier Concentration

request upon customers

Resistivity at RT

(0.001~80)

Ohm.cm

Etch Pit Density

<5000

/cm2

Laser Marking

upon request

Surface Finish

P/E or P/P

 

Epi ready

Yes

Package

Single wafer container or cassette


4 inch Ge wafer Specification

for Solar Cells

Doping

P

Doping substances

 Ge-Ga

Diameter

 100±0.25 mm

Orientation

(100) 9° off toward <111>+/-0.5

Off-orientation tilt angle

N/A

Primary Flat Orientation

N/A

Primary Flat Length

32±1

mm

Secondary Flat Orientation

 N/A

Secondary Flat Length

N/A

 mm

cc

(0.26-2.24)E18

/c.c

Resistivity

(0.74-2.81)E-2

ohm.cm

Electron Mobility

382-865

cm2/v.s.

EPD

<300

/cm2

Laser Mark

N/A

Thickness

175±10

 μm

TTV

15

μm

TIR

N/A

μm

BOW

 <10

μm

Warp

10

μm

Front face

 Polished

Back face

 Ground

 

Germanium Wafer Process


In the germanium wafer production process, germanium dioxide from the residue processing is further purified in chlorination and hydrolysis steps.

1)High purity germanium is obtained during zone refining.


2)A germanium crystal is produced via the Czochralski process.


3)The germanium wafer is manufactured via several cutting, grinding, and etching steps.


4)The wafers are cleaned and inspection. During this process, the wafers are single side polished or double side polished according to custom requirement, epi-ready wafer comes.


5)The wafers are packed in single wafer containers, under a nitrogen atmosphere.


Application:

Germanium blank or window are used in night vision and thermographic imaging solutions for commercial security, fire fighting and industrial monitoring equipment. Also, they are used as filters for analytical and measuring equipment, windows for remote temperature measurement, and mirrors for lasers.

Thin Germanium substrates are used in III-V triple-junction solar cells and for power Concentrated PV (CPV) systems.

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