Home / Products / Germanium Wafer /

Ge(Germanium) Single Crystals and Wafers

Products
Ge(Germanium) Single Crystals and Wafers

Ge(Germanium) Single Crystals and Wafers

PAM offers semiconductor materials,single crystal (Ge)Germanium Wafer grown by VGF / LEC

  • Product Details


Single crystal (Ge)Germanium Wafer


PAM offers semiconductor materials,Ge(Germanium) Single Crystals and Wafers grown by VGF / LEC

General Properties of Germanium Wafer


General  Properties Structure

Cubic, a = 5.6754 Å 

Density: 5.765 g/cm3

Melting   Point: 937.4 oC 

Thermal Conductivity: 640

Crystal Growth Technology

Czochralski 

Doping  available

Undoped

Sb Doping

Doping In or Ga 

Conductive Type

/   

P

Resistivity, ohm.cm

>35  

< 0.05  

0.05 - 0.1 

EPD 

< 5x103/cm 

< 5x103/cm2  

< 5x103/cm2  

< 5x102/cm 

< 5x102/cm2 

< 5x102/cm2  

 

Grades and Application of Germanium wafer

Electronic Grade

Used for diodes and transistors,

Infrared or opitical Grade

Used for IR optical window or disks,opitical components

Cell Grade

Used for substrates of solar cell 


Standard Specs of  Germanium Crystal and wafer

Crystal Orientation

<111>,<100> and <110> ± 0.5o or custom orientation

Crystal boule as grown

1" ~ 6" diameter  x  200 mm Length

Standard blank as cut

1"x 0.5mm

2"x0.6mm

4"x0.7mm

5"&6"x0.8mm 

Standard Polished wafer(One/two sides polished)

1"x 0.30 mm

2"x0.5mm

4"x0.5mm

 5"&6"x0.6mm

Special size and orientation are available upon requested  Wafers


Specification of Germanium Wafer

Item

Specifications

Remarks

Growth Method

VGF

Conduction Type

n-type, p type, undoped

 

Dopant

Gallium or Antimony

 

Wafer Diamter

2, 3,4 & 6

 inch

Crystal Orientation

(100),(111),(110)

 

Thickness

200~550

um

OF

EJ or US

Carrier Concentration

request upon customers

Resistivity at RT

(0.001~80)

Ohm.cm

Etch Pit Density

<5000

/cm2

Laser Marking

upon request

Surface Finish

P/E or P/P

 

Epi ready

Yes

Package

Single wafer container or cassette


4 inch Ge wafer Specification

for Solar Cells

Doping

P

Doping substances

 Ge-Ga

Diameter

 100±0.25 mm

Orientation

(100) 9° off toward <111>+/-0.5

Off-orientation tilt angle

N/A

Primary Flat Orientation

N/A

Primary Flat Length

32±1

mm

Secondary Flat Orientation

 N/A

Secondary Flat Length

N/A

 mm

cc

(0.26-2.24)E18

/c.c

Resistivity

(0.74-2.81)E-2

ohm.cm

Electron Mobility

382-865

cm2/v.s.

EPD

<300

/cm2

Laser Mark

N/A

Thickness

175±10

 μm

TTV

15

μm

TIR

N/A

μm

BOW

 <10

μm

Warp

10

μm

Front face

 Polished

Back face

 Ground

 

Germanium Wafer Process


In the germanium wafer production process, germanium dioxide from the residue processing is further purified in chlorination and hydrolysis steps.

1)High purity germanium is obtained during zone refining.


2)A germanium crystal is produced via the Czochralski process.


3)The germanium wafer is manufactured via several cutting, grinding, and etching steps.


4)The wafers are cleaned and inspection. During this process, the wafers are single side polished or double side polished according to custom requirement, epi-ready wafer comes.


5)The wafers are packed in single wafer containers, under a nitrogen atmosphere.


Application:

Germanium blank or window are used in night vision and thermographic imaging solutions for commercial security, fire fighting and industrial monitoring equipment. Also, they are used as filters for analytical and measuring equipment, windows for remote temperature measurement, and mirrors for lasers.

Thin Germanium substrates are used in III-V triple-junction solar cells and for power Concentrated PV (CPV) systems.

Contact Us

If you would like a quotation or more information about our products, please leave us a message, will reply you as soon as possible.

Related Products

gan on silicon

Freestanding GaN substrate

PAM-XIAMEN has established the manufacturing technology for freestanding (gallium nitride)GaN substrate wafer, which is for UHB-LED and LD. Grown by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE) technology,Our GaN substrate has low defect density.

GaP substrate

GaP wafer

Xiamen Powerway offers GaP wafer - gallium Phosphide which are grown by LEC(Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski) as epi-ready or mechanical grade with n type, p type or semi-insulating in different orientation(111)or(100).

CZT

CdZnTe (CZT) Wafer

Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) is a new semiconductor, which enables to convert radiation to electron effectively, it is mainly used in infrared thin-film epitaxy substrate,X-ray detectors and Gamma-ray detectors, laser optical modulation, high-performance solar cells and other high-tech fields.

Silicon Wafer

Polished wafer

FZ polished wafers, mainly for the production of silicon rectifier (SR), silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), Giant Transistor (GTR), thyristor (GRO)

CZT

CZT Detector

PAM-XIAMEN provides CZT based detectors by solid-state detector technology for x-ray or gamma-ray,which has better energy resolution compared with scintillation crystal based detector, including CZT Planar Detector,CZT Pixilated Detector,CZT Co-Planar Gri

Silicon Wafer

Etching wafer

The etching wafer has the characteristics of low roughness, good glossiness and relatively low cost, and directly substitutes the polished wafer or epitaxial wafer which has relatively high cost to produce the electronic elements in some fields, to reduce the costs. There are the low-roughness, low-reflectivity and high-reflectivity etching wafers.

sic wafer

SIC Application

Due to SiC physical and electronic properties,Silicon Carbide based device are well suitable for short wavelength optoelectronic, high temperature, radiation resistant, and high-power/high-frequency electronic devices,compared with Si and GaAs based device.

sic crystal

SiC Substrate

PAM-XIAMEN offers semiconductor silicon carbide wafers,6H SiC and 4H SiC in different quality grades for researcher and industry manufacturers. We has developed SiC crystal growth technology and SiC crystal wafer processing technology,established a production line to manufacturer SiC substrate,Which is applied in GaN epitaxy device,power devices,hi1

Contact Us

If you would like a quotation or more information about our products, please leave us a message, will reply you as soon as possible.